1. What is the difference between nonfat dry milk (NFDM) and skimmed milk powder (SMP)?
    Skimmed milk powder is defined by Codex Alimentarius. Nonfat dry milk is defined by the Code of Federal Regulations. The main difference between the products is the adjustment of protein level. The protein content of SMP can be adjusted by the addition of milk retentate, milk permeate, or lactose. The protein content of SMP is typically lower than the protein content of NFDM. See CDR's Dried Dairy Ingredient Handbook (pages 9 and 11) for composition information.
  2. Where do I go to find suppliers of dairy ingredients?
    A supplier listing for all dairy ingredients is located at ThinkUSAdairy Select "Supplier Search" to start your search and then select the ingredient you are looking for.
  3. If I want to fortify a product with protein, how do I choose whether to use a whey protein concentrate with 80% protein (WPC80) or a whey protein isolate (WPI)?
    Typically you would make the selection by looking at the total composition and the cost of each ingredient and think about what application you want to use it in. For instance, a WPC80 will have about 5-7% fat, 4-5% lactose, and 4% ash. Compare that to a WPI, which will have less than 1% fat, about 1% lactose, and 2% ash. A WPC80 will be less expensive than a WPI. If you are not concerned about the fat and lactose in a WPC80 then use it to fortify with protein. WPC80 can have more flavors associated with the fat, which may or may not be desirable for your application. If you are trying to make a low pH clear drink then a WPI is the only ingredient that will provide good clarity.
  4. Where do I go to find some starting formulas?
    A listing of starting formulas for main dishes, appetizers, sauces, beverages, desserts, etc. are located at ThinkUSAdairy. Select “Nutrition & Trends” to start your search and then select “Eating Occasions.” You may select “Breakfast,” “Snacking,” “Dining Out,” or “Working Out.” Under each unit, you will find a “Formulas & Recipes” section that lists “(the name of the unit) – view all applications.” You may click and select industry segment, and/or application and/or dairy product and/or specialty/focus. You may then search for results where you can view all applications.
  5. I was told that whey protein can be used as an egg replacer. How do I replace egg in a formula/recipe?
    Here are a couple of resources from ThinkUSAdairy that you might find helpful. There is a “Dairy Detective” article, authored by Susan Larson, CDR’s Dairy Ingredient and Cultured Products Associate Researcher, which gives a general overview of using whey proteins to replace egg protein. There is also a downloadable resource titled “Whey Protein as an Egg Replacer Guidelines.” Another helpful resource is this monograph on how whey can be used in baked goods.
  6. I am working with dairy powders in my formulations. Is there anything that I should keep in mind?
    You should remember that different dairy ingredients have unique characteristics and they do not behave the same in all food systems. For many uses, it is critical to hydrate the powders. Whey proteins hydrate much faster than the casein proteins. Good hydration of milk protein powders is key to their performance in low-acid (neutral pH) beverages. It is important to dissolve the powders in a solution. The temperature of the liquid influences the rate of hydration. Higher temperatures increase the rate of hydration. A high-speed mixer will help disperse the powders, but allowing time for the powders to absorb the liquid is also important to optimize their heat stability and solubility over the shelf life of the beverage. Proper storage of dairy powders will insure their best performance. For instance, studies of whey protein concentrate with 85% protein (MPC85) have found that losses in solubility occurred within 60 days at storage temperatures of 30°C (86°F) and above. Working with the best quality materials helps insure the finest finished product.
  7. I want to learn more about beverages that contain whey and milk proteins. Can you help me?
    This monograph on beverage application from ThinkUSAdairy has information on dairy proteins and permeates in ready-to-drink beverages, processing procedures, some formulas, and other important information.
  8. What is permeate?
    Permeate is a byproduct of the production of whey protein concentrate (WPC), ultrafiltered (UF) milk or milk protein concentrate (MPC). The composition of permeate will vary depending on the starting material. Permeate is mainly composed of lactose and mineral and has little to no true protein. For more information, see this overview on whey and milk permeate.
  9. How can I use permeate in a formula?
    Permeate may be used in formulas as a cost-reduction opportunity and it may also be used for sodium reduction. However, the high-mineral content often gives a salty taste perception. In addition, because of the high-lactose content, there is also a sweet flavor perception. This monograph on permeate gives some direction on how to use permeate in a formula to replace salt and includes some starter recipes.
  10. I am planning on using permeate in my formulation, are there any pitfalls that I should be aware of?
    Permeate is largely made up of lactose. Lactose has a maximum solubility of about 14%. A gritty texture will indict that not all of the lactose in the formula is completely soluble. In this case, the amount of permeate in the formula should be decreased.
  11. I am interested in developing a new product. Can you help me?
    The staff at CDR will work with companies and individuals to develop new product ideas or new flavors or modifications of current products that are dairy based. The CDR Dairy Ingredients and Cultured Products Staff has experience working with large and small companies to develop products. The staff also has product development experience from working in the food industry. Initial discussions will clarify the concept and basic cost. We will explore the concept and match it with our capabilities and expertise. Confidentiality and fee-for-service documents can be prepared. You should contact Kimberlee (KJ) Burrington, CDR’s Dairy Ingredient and Cultured Products Coordinator, at 608-265-9297 or burrington@cdr.wisc.edu.
  12. What selection criteria do I use for deciding which dairy protein ingredient to use in a product?
    This Dairy Pipeline article (see page 4) written by KJ Burrington discusses whey protein and milk protein and the differences between concentrates and isolates. The article discusses the functionality differences of the different proteins and their strengths and differences.